Roman gold coins from the Russian State Historical Museum are published for the first time. The authors describe 90 gold coins dated back to 216 ВС - 235 AD. The first part of the paper also includes a description of Italic issues and provincial coins of the republican time. The earliest specimen is a hemistater made of electrum issued in Capua in 216-211 ВС (Grueber H. Coins of Roman Republic in the British Museum. II. 1910. P. 139, note 1, № 147, pl. LXXV, 14). (№ 1.) Of special interest is a group of coins of the Roman vassal, Dacian king Coson (№ 3-6). The gold coins are of Roman provincial minting of 43-42 ВС (Burnett A., Amandry M., Ripollès P. Roman Provincial Coinage. I. 1992. P. 312, № 1701). They used to be regarded as issued by the Thracian king Coson. (№ 4-6.) This problem is discussed in the article. Among the republican aurei coins of Julius Caesar (№ 7-11, 47-46 ВС) and Marcus Antonius (№ 12, 39 ВС) are to be specially mentioned. Coins of the imperial period are represented by aurei of Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and other emperors. The collection includes various aurei of Flavii and Antonines. The article is concluded by a review of coins issued under Severi.