Mithridates of Pergamum – a Known and Unknown Ruler

Saprykin Sergey Yu.

The article offers a comprehensive study of the life and political activity of Mithridates of Pergamum, whose political rise as a friend of Caesar and Rome occurred between the Alexandrian war and the battle at Zela in 47 BC when Caesar fought with Pharnaces II. The chronology of his life can now be constructed more precisely with the help of a golden stater, discovered in the course of archaeological investigations on the site of Artesian in East Crimea. This unique coin was minted at Pergamum and bears a portrait of Mithridates of Pergamum in the image of a Roman noble, his royal title, name and the year ГМ = 43 = 46 BC which, in the author’s view, indicates the Pergamene “liberation” era of Mithridates VI Eupator, used also on the latter’s coins struck at Pergamum in 89– 85 BC. The use of this era on the coin of Mithridates of Pergamum was motivated by his claim to be a descendant of the great Pontic king. The reverse of the coin with a great deal of probability gives a head of Deiotarus the Elder with lituus, symbol of his interest in the Roman augures. Deiotarus was the predecessor of Mithridates of Pergamum on the throne of the Galatian Trocmi and presumably of the whole Galatia. The year 46 BC – the year of the third consulate of Caesar – is also marked on the coin in the ligature ΥΓ = ὕπατος Γ, i.e. “consul for the third time”. In 46 BC the Roman dictator proclaimed Mithridates the king of the Trocmi (and arguably of the whole Galatia), and the king of Bosporus and other countries (evidently the part of the coast between Pharnacia and Trapezous along with Colchis) and gave him an opportunity to start a campaign against Asander who usurped power in Bosporus in 47 BC. The date on Mithridates’ commemorative coin – 46 BC – allows to establish the date of this military venture, defeat and death of Mithridates of Pergamum more precisely: it happened not earlier than the late 46 – early 45 BC. After his victory, probably in a sea battle, Asander started minting coins with naval symbols in commemoration of his victory over Mithridates, while Caesar had refused to recognize him as king of Bosporus.

Keywords: Mithridates of Pergamum, Caesar, Mithridates Eupator, Deiotarus, Bosporus, Galatia, Brogitarus, Adobogiona, Trocmi, Tolistobogii, Egypt, Pharnaces, Mithridates III of Bosporus

Abramzon, M.G., Vinokurov, N.I. 2016: [Gold staters of Aspourgos and Mithridates III and new assemblages of coins and jewelry from the site of Artesian]. Vestnik drevney istorii [Journal of Ancient History] 76/3, 712–743.

Абрамзон, М.Г., Винокуров, Н.И. Золотые статеры Аспурга и Митридата III и новые комплексы с монетами и ювелирными изделиями с городища Артезиан. ВДИ 76/3, 712–743.

Adcock, F. 1937: Lesser Armenia and Galatia after Pompey’s settlement of the East. Journal of Roman Studies 27, 12–17.

Alföldi, A. 1974: Caesar in 44 v. Chr. Bd 2. Das Zeugnis der Münzen. Bonn.

Anokhin, V.A. 1986: Monetnoe delo Bospora [The Coinage of Bosporus]. Kiev.

Анохин, В.А. Монетное дело Боспора. Киев.

Anokhin, V.A. 2011: Antichnye monety Severnogo Prichernomor’ya [Ancient Coins of the North Black Sea Coast]. Kiev.

Анохин, В.А. Античные монеты Северного Причерноморья. Киев.

Bernhardt, R. 1985: Polis und Römische Herrschaft in der späten Republik (149–31 v. Chr.). Berlin–New York.

Biсkerman, E. 1975: Khronologiya drevnego mira [Chronology of the Ancient World]. Moscow.

Бикерман, Э. Хронология древнего мира. М.

Bowersock, G.W. 1965: Augustus and the Greek World. Oxford.

Brandis, K.G. 1897: Bosporos (3). In: RE. Hlbd 5, 757–789.

Braund, D. 1994: Georgia in Antiquity. A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC–AD 562. Oxford.

Broughton, T.R.S. 1938: Roman Asia. In: T. Frank et al. (eds.), An Economic Survey of Ancient Rome. Vol. IV. Roman Africa, Roman Syria, Roman Greece, Roman Asia. Baltimore, 534–645.

Bunson, M. 2002: Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. Revised ed. New York.

Callataÿ, F. de 1997: L’histoire des guerres mithridatiques vue par les monnaies. (Numismatica Lovaniensia, 18). Louvain-la-Neuve.

Сoşkun, A. (Hrsg.) 2005: Roms auswärtige Freunde in der späten Republik und im frühen Prinzipat. Göttingen.

Crawford, M.H. 1974: Roman Republican Coinage. Vol. I–II. Cambridge.

D’yakov, V.N. 1940: [Patterns of Roman penetration to the North Black Sea Region: Pontus and Moesia]. Vestnik drevney istorii [Journal of Ancient History] 3–4, 71–88.

Дьяков, В.Н. Пути римского проникновения в Северное Причерноморье: Понт и Мезия. ВДИ 3–4, 71–88.

Dunstan, W.E. 2011: Ancient Rome. New York–Toronto.

Durov, V.S. 1991: Yuliy Tsezar’. Chelovek i pisatel’ [Julius Caesar: Man and Writer]. Leningrad.

Дуров, В.С. Юлий Цезарь. Человек и писатель. Л.

Egorov, A.B. 2014: Yuliy Tsezar’. Politicheskaya biografiya [Julius Caesar. Political Biography]. Saint Petersburg.

Егоров, А.Б. Юлий Цезарь. Политическая биография. СПб.

Ellis, P.B. 1997: Celt and Greek. Celts in the Hellenic World. London.

Evans, R. 2012: A History of Pergamum: Beyond Hellenistic Kingship. New York.

Evans, R. 2013: Fields of Death: Retracing Ancient Battlefields. Barnsley.

Freber, P.-St. G. 1993: Der Hellenistische Osten und das Illyricum unter Caesar. (Palingenesia, 42). Stuttgart.

Frolova, N.A. 1976: [Copper coins of Cotys I as historical source]. Sovetskaya arkheologia [Soviet Archaeology] 3, 103–111.

Фролова, Н.А. Медные монеты Котиса I как исторический источник. СА 3, 103–111.

Frolova, N.A. 1977: [Dating the Reigns of Gepaepyris and Mithridates III]. Vestnik drevney istorii [Journal of Ancient History] 3, 166–174.

Фролова, Н.А. О времени правления Гепепирии и Митридата III. ВДИ 3, 166–174.

Frolova, N.A. 1997: Monetnoe delo Bospora (seredina I v. do n.e. – seredina IV v. n.e.). Ch. I. Monetnoe delo Bospora 49/48 g. do n.e. – 210/211 g. n.e. Ch. II. Monetnoe delo Bospora 211–341/342 g. n.e. [The Coinage of Bosporus (middle of the 1st century BC – middle of the 4th century AD). Pt. 1. The Coinage of Bosporus from 49/48 BC to AD 210/211. Pt. 2. The Coinage of Bosporus from AD 211 to AD 341/342]. Moscow.

Фролова, Н.А. Монетное дело Боспора (середина I в. до н.э. – середина IV в. н.э.). Ч. I. Монетное дело Боспора 49/48 г. до н.э. – 210/211 г. н.э. Ч. II. Монетное дело Боспора 211–341/342 г. н.э. Москва.

Frolova, N., Ireland, S. 2002: The Coinage of the Bosporan Kingdom: From the First Century BC to the Middle of the First Century AD. (BAR IS, 1102). Oxford.

Fuller, J.F.C. 1965: Julius Caesar: Man, Soldier, and Tyrant. London.

Fündling, J. 2000: Mithridates (8). In: DKP 8, 281.

Gaydukevich, V.F. 1949: Bosporskoe tsarstvo [The Bosporan Kingdom]. Moscow–Leningrad.

Гайдукевич, В.Ф. Боспорское царство. М.–Л.

Gaydukevich, V.F. 1955: [History of ancient cities on the North Black Sea Coast]. In: V.F. Gaydukevich, M.I. Maksimova (eds.), Antichnye goroda Severnogo Prichernomoriya [Ancient Cities of the Northern Black Sea Littoral]. Moscow–Leningrad, 23–147.

Гайдукевич, В.Ф. История античных городов Северного Причерноморья. В сб.: В.Ф. Гайдукевич, М.И. Максимова (ред.), Античные города Северного Причерноморья. М.–Л., 23–147.

Geyer, Fr. 1932: Mithridates (15). In: RE. Hlbd 30, 2205–2206.

Golubtsova, E.S. 1951: Severnoe Prichernomor’e i Rim na rubezhe nashey ery. [The North Black Sea Coast and Rome on the Eve of our Era]. Moscow.

Голубцова, Е.С. Северное Причерноморье и Рим на рубеже нашей эры. М.

Grakov, B.N. 1939: [Materials on the history of Scythia in Greek inscriptions from Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor]. Vestnik drevney istorii [Journal of Ancient History] 3, 231–317.

Граков, Б.Н. Материалы по истории Скифии в греческих надписях Балканского полуострова и Малой Азии. ВДИ 3, 231–317.

Grueber, H.A. 1910: Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum. Vol. I–III. London.

Haussoullier, B. 1902: Études sur l’histoire de Milet et du Didymeion. Paris.

Head, B.V. 1911: Historia nummorum. A Manual of Greek Numismatics. Oxford.

Heinen, H. 1994: Mithridates von Pergamon und Caesars bosporanische Pläne. In: R. Günther, St. Rebenich (eds.), E fontibus haurire. Beiträge zur römischen Geschichte und zu ihren Hilfswissenschften. Heinrich Chantraine zum 65. Geburtstag. (Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des Altertums, 1.8). Paderborn, 63–79.

Hennig, R. 1908: Die Regierungszeit des Asander. Berliner Münzblätter N.F., 3/78–79, 85–92.

Hepding, H. 1909: Mithridates von Pergamon. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Athenische Abteilung 34, 329–340.

Hepding, H. 1910: Die Arbeiten zu Pergamon 1908–1909. II. Die Inschriften. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Athenische Abteilung 35, Heft 3–4, 401–493.

Hirschfeld, G. 1879: Die Abkunft des Mithridates von Pergamon. Hermes XIV, 3, 474–475.

Hoben, W. 1969: Untersuchungen zur Stellung kleinasiatischer Dynasten in den Machtkämpfen der ausgehenden Römischen Republik. Mainz.

Holmes, T.R. 1967: The Roman Republic and the Founder of the Empire. Vol. 3. New York.

Hoover, O.D. 2012: Handbook of Coins of Northern and Central Anatolia: Pontos, Paphlagonia, Bithynia, Phrygia, Galatia, Lykaonia, and Kappadokia (with Kolchis and the Kimmerian Bosporos). Fifth to First Centuries BC. Lancaster–London.

Hopfensack, J.C.W. 1829: Staatsrecht der Untertanen der Römer. Düsseldorf.

Howgego, Ch. 1995: Ancient History from Coins. London–New York.

Ippel, A. 1912a: Die Arbeiten zu Pergamon 1910–1911. II. Die Inschriften. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Athenische Abteilung 37, 277–304.

Ippel, A. 1912b: Die Arbeiten zu Pergamon 1910–1911. III. Die Einzelfunde. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. Athenische Abteilung 37, 304–344.

Judeich, W. 1885: Caesar im Orient. Leipzig.

Kallistov, D.P. 1938: [Etudes from the history of Bosporus in the Roman time (Political relations of Rome and Bosporus under kings Pharnaces and Asander)]. Vestnik drevney istorii [Journal of Ancient History] 4, 174–183.

Каллистов, Д.П. Этюды из истории Боспора римского времени (политические взаимоотношения Рима и Боспора при царях Фарнаке и Асандре). ВДИ 4, 174–183.

Kamm, A. 2002: Julius Caesar. A Beginner’s Guide. London.

Kroll, W. 1940: Brogitarus. In: RE. Supplbd VII, 82–83.

La Tour, H. de 1892: Atlas des monnaies gauloises. Paris.

Leschhorn, W. 1993: Antike Ären. Stuttgart.

Lomouri, N.Ju. 1979: K istorii Pontiyskogo tsarstva [To the History of the Kingdom of Pontus]. Tbilisi.

Ломоури, Н.Ю. К истории Понтийского царства. Тбилиси.

Lordkipanidze, O.D. 1978: Gorod-khram Kolkhidy [The City-Temple of Colchis]. Moscow.

Лордкипанидзе, О.Д. Город-храм Колхиды. М.

Magie, D. 1950: Roman Rule in Asia Minor. Vol. I–II. Princeton.

Maksimova, M.I. 1956: Antichnye goroda Yugo-Vostochnogo Prichernomor’ya [Ancient Cities of the South-East Black Sea Region]. Moscow–Leningrad.

Максимова, М.И. Античные города Юго-Восточного Причерноморья. М.–Л.

Marek, Ch. 2010: Geschichte Kleinasiens in der Antike. München.

Maurer, R. 1988: Politische Geschichte des Römischen Reiches. Vol. I. Von der Gründung Roms bis zum Ende der Republik. Frankfurt am Main–Paris.

Maslennikov, A.A. 1998: Ellinskaya khora na krayu Oykumeny. Sel’skaya territoriya evropeyskogo Bospora v antichnuyu epokhu [The Hellenic Chora on the Edge of the Oecumene. Rural Territory of the European Bosporus in the Antiquity]. Moscow.

Масленников, А.А. Эллинская хора на краю Ойкумены. Селькая территория европейского Боспора в античную эпоху. М.

McGing, B. 1986: The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator, King of Pontus. Leiden.

Minns, E. 1913: Scythians and Greeks: a Survey of Ancient History and Archaeology on the North Coast of the Euxine from the Danube to the Caucasus. Cambridge.

Mitchell, S. 1982: Regional Epigraphic Catalogues of Asia Minor II: The Ankara District. The Inscriptions of North Galatia. (BAR IS, 135). Oxford.

Mommsen, T. 1885: Römische Geschichte. Bd V. Berlin.

Murray, J. 1875: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. London.

Musheghyan, Kh.A. 1973: Monetnye klady Armenii [The Coin Hoards of Armenia]. Erevan.

Мушегян, Х.А. Монетные клады Армении. Ереван.

Niese, B. 1883: Straboniana. Rheinisches Museum für Philologie 38, 567–602.

Olshausen, E. 1978: Pontos (2). In: RE. Supplbd XV, 396–442.

Passerini, A. 1937: Le iscrizioni dell’ agora di Smirne concernenti la lite tra i publicani e i Pergameni. Athenaeum 15, 252–283.

Portanova, J.J. 1988: The Associates of Mithridates VI of Pontus. Ann Arbor.

Rankin, D. 1996: Celts and the Classical World. London–New York.

Reinach, T. 1888: Numismatique ancienne. Trois royaumes de l’Asie Mineure. Cappadoce, Bithynie, Pont. Paris.

Reinach, T. 1895: Mithridates Eupator, König von Pontos. Leipzig.

Reinach, T. 1902: L’histoire par les monnaies : essais de numismatique ancienne. Paris.

Robert, L. 1939: Inscriptions grecques d’Asie Mineure. In: W.M. Calder, J. Keil (eds.), Anatolian Studies Presented to W.H. Buckler. Manchester, 227–230.

Robert, L. 2007: Choix d’écrits. Paris.

Rostovtzeff, M.I. 1917a: [Caesar and Chersonesus]. Izvestiya imperatorskoy arkheologicheskoy komissii [The Proceedings of the Imperial Archaeological Commission] 63, 1–21.

Ростовцев, М.И. Цезарь и Херсонес. ИАК 63, 1–21.

Rostovtzeff, M.I. 1917b: Caesar and the South of Russia. Journal of Roman Studies 7, 27–44.

Rostovtzeff, M.I. 1922: Iranians and Greeks in South Russia. Oxford.

Rostovtzeff, M.I. 1941: Social and Economic History of the Hellenistic World. Vol. I–III. Oxford.

Sallet, A. von 1866: Beiträge zur Geschichte und Numismatik der Könige des Cimmerischen Bosporus und des Pontus von der Schlacht bei Zela bis zur Abdankung Polemo II. Berlin.

Sallet, A. von 1875: Münzen des Königs Darius von Pontus und des Mithridates (Pergamenus) von Bosporus. Zeitschrift für Numismatik 2, 357–361.

Samuel, A.E. 1972: Greek and Roman Chronology. Calendars and Years in Classical Antiquity. München.

Sands, P.C. 1908: The Client Princes of the Roman Empire under the Republic. Cambridge.

Saprykin, S.Yu. 2002: Bosporskoe tsarstvo na rubezhe dvukh epokh [The Kingdom of Bosporus on the Verge of Two Epochs]. Moscow.

Сапрыкин, С.Ю. Боспорское царство на рубеже двух эпох. Москва.

Saprykin, S. Yu. 2010: [Late Hellenistic and Roman periods (I c. BC – mid III c. AD)]. In: G.M. Bongard-Levin, V.D. Kuznetsov (eds.), Antichnoe nasledie Kubani. [Ancient Heritage of Kuban]. Vol. 2. Moscow, 81–131.

Сапрыкин, С.Ю. Позднеэллинистический и римский периоды (I в. до н.э. – середина III в. н.э.). В кн.: Г.М. Бонгард-Левин, В.Д. Кузнецов (ред.), Античное наследие Кубани. Т. 2. Москва, 81–131.

Saprykin, S.Yu. 2017: [ΤΟ ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΟΝΤΟΥ ΠΟΛΙΩΝ on the South Black Sea Coast]. Vestnik drevney istorii [Journal of Ancient History] 77/3, 652–687.

Сапрыкин, С.Ю. ΤΟ ΚΟΙΝΟΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΟΝΤΟΥ ΠΟΛΙΩΝ в Южном Причерноморье. ВДИ 77/3, 652–687.

Saprykin, S.Yu. 2018: Drevnee Prichernomor’e [Ancient Black Sea Littoral]. Saint Petersburg–Moscow.

Сапрыкин, С.Ю. Древнее Причерноморье. СПб.–М.

Sartre, M. 2004: L’Anatolie hellénistique de l’Égée au Caucase (334–31 av. J.-C.). Paris.

Scullard, H. 1982: From the Gracchi to Nero. A History of Rome from 133 BC to AD 68. London–New York.

Sear, D.R. 1988: Roman Coins and Their Values. Vol. 1. The Republic and the Twelve Caesars 280 BC – AD 96. London.

Segre, M. 1938: Giulio Cesare e la χώρα pergamena. Athenaeum 16, 119–127.

Sherk, R.K. 1969: Roman Documents from the Greek East. Senatus consulta and epistulae to the Age of Augustus. Baltimore.

Sherwin-White, A.N. 1984: Roman Foreign Policy in the East 168 BC to AD 1. Norman (Oklahoma).

Sijpesteijn, P.J. 1965: Mithridates’ march from Pergamum to Alexandria in 48 BC. Latomus 24, 122–127.

Stähelin, F. 1907: Geschichte der kleinasiatischen Galater. Leipzig.

Sullivan, R.D. 1990: Near Eastern Royalty and Rome, 100–30 BC. Toronto.

Sydenham, F.A. 1952: Coinage of the Roman Republic. London.

Syme, R. 1995: Anatolica. Studies in Strabo. Oxford.

Tsvetaeva, G.A. 1979: Bospor i Rim [Bosporus and Rome]. Moscow.

Цветаева, Г.А. Боспор и Рим. М.

Ussher, J. 2005: The Annales of the World. Green Forest.

Utchenko, S.L. 1976: Yuliy Tsezar’ [Julius Caesar]. Moscow.

Утченко, С.Л. Юлий Цезарь. М.

Vinokurov, N.I., Krykin, S.M. 2017: [Roman policy in the North and North-West Black Sea Region in the mid 1st century AD]. Problemy istorii, filologii, kultury [Journal of Historical, Philological and Cultural Studies] 4, 170–194.

Винокуров, Н.И., Крыкин, С.М. Римская политика в Северном и Северо-Западном Причерноморье в середине I в. н.э. Проблемы истории, филологии, культуры 4, 170–194.

Wardle, D. (ed.) 2006: Cicero: On Divination. Book I. Oxford.

Wilcken, U. 1896: Asandros. In: RE. Hlbd 4, 1516–1517.

Zimmermann, M. 2011: Pergamon. Geschichte, Kultur, Archäologie. München.

Zograf, A.N. 1951: Antichnye monety [Ancient Coins]. Moscow–Leningrad.

Зограф, А.Н. Античные монеты. М.–Л.

Zubarev, V.G., Maslennikov, A.A. 1987: [The historical geography of the Eastern Crimea according to Claudius Ptolemaeus]. Sovetskaya arkheologiya [Soviet Archaeology] 3, 40–44.

Зубарев, В.Г., Масленников, А.А. Историческая география Восточного Крыма по Клавдию Птолемею. СА 3, 40–44.