The article presents the text of an oral communication of the leading Soviet Orientalist of the first half of the twentieth century, V.V. Struve, “Museum of Ancient Orient in Sociological Relation”, held at the session of the Museum Section of the Committee of Sociological Study of Art of the Institute of the History of Art on 16 June 1925. Struve discusses the principles of the Museums’ activity in using Ancient Oriental material. This communication dates earlier than his printed publications in which Struve put forward the idea of social revolutions in Ancient Egypt. It is set in the context of the development of Soviet Oriental studies, and connected in particular with the debate between V.V. Struve and S.Ya. Luria on this matter.