Peithon, an Alexander’s Successor in the Shadow of Great Contemporaries

Smirnov Svyatoslav V.

The paper is devoted to the political biography and career of Peithon, son of Crateuas, who is still one of the little-known Early Hellenistic politicians in modern scholarship. At the beginning of his career Peithon was involved into the Eastern campaign as Alexander’s bodyguard. By the end of Alexander’s life he was quite a powerful general and a member of the king’s nearest environment. Shortly after the death of Alexander the Great Peithon became the main participant in the division of his empire. In Babylon (323 BC) Peithon was appointed the satrap of Media. He put down a revolt of Greek military colonists in the ‘high satrapies’. After Perdiccas’ murder Peithon and Arrhidaios became regents of the empire for a short time. Since the meeting in Triparadeisus in 320 BC Peithon held the post of general of the ‘high satrapies’. Some later events (like his relations with Atropates and an unsuccessful war against the eastern satraps) enable the author to suppose that Peithon made attempts to create his own kingdom in the East.

Keywords: Peithon, diadochi, Hellenism, Antigonos ‘the One-eyed’, Hieronymus of Cardia, Seleucus I
  1. Aliev I. 1989: Ocherk istorii Atropateny. Baku.
  2. Djakonov I.M. 2008: Istorija Midii ot drevnejshih vremen do konca IV veka do SPb.
  3. Koshelenko G.A. 1972: Vosstanie grekov v Baktrii i Sogdiane 323 g. do i nekotorye aspekty grecheskoj politicheskoj mysli IV v. do // VDI, 1. 59–78.
  4. Koshelenko G.A. 1979: Grecheskij polis na jellinisticheskom Vostoke. M.
  5. Smirnov S.V. 2009: Gieronim iz Kardii o Selevke I // Politika, ideologija, istoriopisanie v rimsko-jellinisticheskom mire / O.L. Gabelko (red.). Kazan', 74–79.
  6. Smirnov S.V. 2013: Gosudarstvo Selevka I: politika, jekonomika, obshhestvo. M.
  7. Shofman A.S. 1984: Raspad imperii Aleksandra Makedonskogo. Kazan'.
  8. Jampolskij Z.I. 1974: Ob Atropate – sovremennike Aleksandra Makedonskogo // VDI. 4. 176–177.
  9. Anson E.M. 2004: Eumenes of Cardia. A Greek among Macedonians. Boston – Leiden.
  10. Bennett B., Roberts M. 2008: The Wars of Alexander’s Successors 323–281 BC. I. Commanders and Campaigns. L.
  11. Bennett B., Roberts M. 2009: The Wars of Alexander’s Successors 323–281 BC. II. Battles and Tactics. L.
  12. Bengtson H. 1987: Die Diadochen. Die Nachfolger Alexanders des Grossen. München.
  13. Berve H. 1938: Peithon (4) // RE. 220–222.
  14. Billows R. 1997: Antigonos the One-Eyed and the Creation of the Hellenistic State. Berckeley–Los Angeles–Oxford.
  15. Billows R. 2000: Polybius and Alexander Historiography // Alexander the Great in Fact and Fiction / A.B. Bosworth, E.J. Baynham (eds.). Oxf.
  16. Boiy T. 2007: Between High and Low. Chronology of the Early Hellenistic Period. Frankfurt-am-Main.
  17. Bosworth A.B. 2002: The Legacy of Alexander. Oxf.
  18. La transition…2006: La transition entre l’empire achéménide et les royaumes hellénistiques / P. Briant, F. Joannès (eds.) P.
  19. Brown T.S. 1947: Hieronymus of Cardia // AHR. 4, 684–696.
  20. Capdetrey L. 2007: Le pouvoir séleucide. Territoire, administration, finances d’un royaume hellénistique (312–126 avant J.-C.). Rennes.
  21. Carney E. 1987: The Career of Adea-Eurydike // Historia. 36, 496–502.
  22. Errington R.M. 1970: From Babylon to Triparadeisos: 323–320 B.C. // JHS. 90. 49–77.
  23. Fox R.L. Philip’s and Alexander’s Macedon // Brill’s Companion to Ancient Macedon / R.L. Fox (ed.). Leiden – Boston, 2011.
  24. Hammond N.G.L. 1984: Alexander’s Veterans after his Death // GBRS. 25, 51–60.
  25. Heckel W. 1992: The Marshals of Alexander’s Empire. L.–N.Y.
  26. Heckel W. 2006: Who’s Who in the Age of Alexander the Great. Prosopography of Alexander’s Empire. Oxf.
  27. Hornblower J. 1981: Hieronymus of Cardia. Oxf.
  28. Klinkott H. 2000: Die Satrapienregister der Alexander- und Diadochenzeit. Stuttgart.
  29. Mehl A. 1986: Seleukos Nikator und sein Reich. Seleukos’ Leben und die Entwicklung seiner Machtposition. Leuven.
  30. Olbrycht M.J. 2013: Iranians in the Diadochi Period // After Alexander: the Time of the Diadochi (323–281 BC) / V.A. Troncoso, E.M. Anson (eds.). Exeter.
  31. Rathmann M. 2005: Perdikkas zwischen 323 und 320: Nachlassverwalter des Alexanderreiches oder Autokrat?
  32. Roisman J. 2010: Hieronymus of Cardia: Causation and Bias from Alexander to his Successors // Philip II and Alexander the Great. Father and Son, Lives and Afterlives / E. Carney, D. Ogden (eds.). Oxf., 135–150.
  33. Roisman J. 2012: Alexander’s Veterans and the Early Wars of Successors. Austin.
  34. Schober L. 1981: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Babyloniens und der oberen Satrapien von 323–303 v. Chr. Frankfurt-am-Main–Berne.
  35. Waterfield R. 2011: Dividing the Spoils: the War for Alexander the Great’s Empire. Oxf.