The Temple of Achilles on the Island of Leuka in the Pontus Euxeinus

Rusyayeva Anna S.

Modern classical scholarship has two approaches to the interpretation of the plan of the tem- ple of Achilles on the island of Leuka, made by Russian Black Sea Navy Captain-Lieutenant N.D. Kritsky in 1823. Some scholars definitely identify it with this temple without any doubt, while others believe that this vast square building does not match any of the known types of Greek temples. The analyzed data of the ancient writers about this temple show that it was re- garded as the main sanctuary of the island and a dwelling-place of the divine Achilles during many centuries and was called by the same terms which were applied to the temples of gods. The author presents a new interpretation of Kritsky's plan, taking into consideration some discrepancies in the stratigraphy of the foundations, the division of the «square» into two halves by an axe going from south to north, comparative metrology and orientation of temples in Mile- tus and its late Archaic colonies. This complex analysis makes it possible to conclude that the plan taken from the central height of the island, is an in situ plan of foundations of two temples, similar in their layout, but constructed at different times. The earlier one was analogical in its ar- chitectural decoration, layout, orientation and metrology to the Olbian temple of Apollo Ietros of the last quarter of the 6th - last quarter of the 5th century ВС. The later temple must have been constructed during the last quarter of the 4th century ВС by the citizens of Olbia in accor- dance with the proportions of the earlier one. This variant of interpretation of Kritsky's plan re- moves any doubt that this temple should be identified as the temple of Achilles.