Egyptian Bureaucratic Terms on the Old Kingdom Cylinder Seals

Bogdanov Ivan V.

The article presents an analysis of the inscriptions on cylinder seals from the times of I–III dynasties (13 examples) and IV–V dynasties (about 30 examples), where the term ...r(jt)- is used in the meaning of «certified» or «(somebody) authenticates». This term is adopted from everyday vocabulary in the archaic period. It’s the oldest bureaucratic term, used for confirmation of economical transaction. The notion ...r(jw)- «visa, control mark» and its derivatives disappear from the texts not earlier than the reign of the king Jzzj.

Keywords: ancient Egypt, old Kingdom, bureaucracy