Bureaucratic Terminology in the Titles of Egyptian Functionaries of the Old and Middle Kingdoms

Bogdanov Ivan V.

The article is a complete prosopography and examination of the Egyptian titles with the element Xr(j)t-a/ Xrjw-a/ Xrj-a according to the sources from the III – early II millennium BC. I. The regular titles with the element Xr(j)t-a/ Xrjw-a of the Old Kingdom are divided into two groups: 1) titles of scribes, in which Xr(j)t-a means the department of «royal documentation»; 2) titles of officials, in which Xrjw-a means «visa documents». In most other combinations with a title Xr(j)-a is not its element, and means «(one) certified». II. The titles with the element Xrj-a of the Middle Kingdom are also divided into two groups: 1) irregular title Xrj-a – «assistant» (with variants); 2) regular titles. As a part of some Middle Kingdom titles, first and foremost of the «treasurers», the title Xrj-a means «representative».

Keywords: ancient Egypt, bureaucracy, Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom