The author analyses results of excavations at Kampyrtepa in Southern Uzbekistan. During the recent years deep cultural layers corresponding to the Hellenistic period have been discovered here. The materials unearthed allow the author to describe the lay-out of the complex and the character of dwelling houses, as well as the material culture of the early periods of this monument’s existence. Kampyrtepa, founded not later than at the last quarter of the 4th century BC, was a strong point at one of the most important crossings of the Amu-Darya. It was on the trade route connecting Balkh, the capital of Bactria, with the «barbarian» periphery of the Seleucid state north of the Amu-Darya.