The Sources of Oriental Imports at the Samian Sanctuary of Hera

Ivanova Anna V.

During the excavations of Samian sanctuary of Hera large numbers of votive offerings of oriental origin were uncovered. The analysis of literal, epigraphic and archaeological sources allows us to conclude that the majority of such votives were imported by the means of trade, exchange of craftsmanship techniques, mercenary services of the Greeks in the East and pirate raids. Pilgrimage by foreign travellers and the migration of oriental craftsmen in the case of Samos seem to be less plausible and lack solid evidence.

Keywords: Archaic Greece, cross-cultural connections, sanctuaries, votive offerings, oriental imports, Heraion of Samos

Ampolo, C., Bresciani, E. 1988: Psammetico re d’Egitto e il mercenario Pedon: premessa. Egitto e Vicino Oriente 11, 237–253.

Barbaro, N. 2018: Dedica votiva del mercenario Pedon. Axon 2/1, 19–30.

Boardman, J. 1965: Tarsus, Al Mina and Greek Сhronology. Journal of Hellenic Studies 85, 5–15.

Boardman, J. 1980: The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade. London.

Burkert, W. 1995: The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age. Cambridge.

Campbell, D.A. (ed.) 1982: Greek Lyric. Sappho and Alcaeus. (Loeb Classical Library, 142). Cambridge.

Demetriou, D. 2012: Negotiating Identity in the Ancient Mediterranean. The Archaic and Classical Greek Multiethnic Emporia. Cambridge.

Eph’al, I., Naveh, J. 1989: Hazael’s Booty Inscriptions. Israel Exploration Journal 39/3–4, 192–200.

Fantalkin, A., Lytle, E. 2016: Alcaeus and Antimenidas: Reassessing the Evidence for Greek Mercenaries in the Neo-Babylonian Army. Klio 98/1, 90–117.

Hockmann, U., Kreikenbom, D. (eds.) 2001: Naukratis. Die Beziehungen zu Ostgriechenland, Ägypten und Zypern in archaischer Zeit. Akten der Table Ronde in Mainz, 25. –27. November 1999. Möhnesee.

Jantzen, U. 1972: Ägyptische und orientalische Bronzen aus dem Heraion von Samos. (Samos, VIII). Bonn.

Kilian-Dirlmeier, I. 1985: Fremde Weihungen in griechischen Heiligtümern vom 8. bis zum Beginn des 7. Jahrhunderts v. Chr. Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums Mainz 32, 215–254.

Kyrieleis, H. 1990: Samos and Some Aspects of Archaic Greek Bronze Casting. In: M. True, J. Podany (eds.), Small Bronze Sculpture from the Ancient World. Papers Delivered at a Symposium Organized by the Departments of Antiquities and Antiquities Conservation and Held at the J. Paul Getty Museum, March 16–19, 1989. Malibu, 15–30.

Kyrieleis, H. 2005: The Heraion at Samos. In: N. Marinatos, R. Hägg (eds.), Greek Sanctuaries. New Approaches. Online ed. London–New York, 99–122.

Kyrieleis, H., Röllig, W. 1988: Ein altorientalischer Pferdeschmuck aus dem Heraion von Samos. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung 103, 37–75.

Moller, A. 2001: Trade in Archaic Greece. Oxford. Morris, S.P. 2006: The View from East Greece: Miletus, Samos and Ephesus. In: S. P. Morris, C. Riva, N. C. Vella (eds.), Debating Orientalization. Multidisciplinary Approaches to Change in the Ancient Mediterranean. London–Oakville, 66–84.

Mouritz, D.M. 2018: East Greek Pottery and Graeco-Anatolian Mercenaries in the Southern Levant in Iron Age IIC (CA. 600 BCE). PhD thesis. Melbourne.

Niemeier, W.-D. 2001: Archaic Greeks in the Orient: Textual and Archaeological Evidence. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 322, 11–32.

O’Brien, J.V. 1993: The Transformation of Hera: A Study of Ritual, Hero and the Goddess in the Iliad. Lanham.

Pedley, J. 2005: Sanctuaries and the Sacred in the Ancient Greek World. Cambridge.

Schlotzhauer, U., Villing, A. 2006: East Greek Pottery from Naukratis: The Current State of Research. In: A. Villing, U. Schlotzhauer (eds.), Naukratis: Greek Diversity in Egypt. Studies on East Greek Pottery and Exchange in the Eastern Mediterranean. London, 53–68.

Sullivan, B.M. 2011: Paying Archaic Greek Mercenaries: Views from Egypt and the Near East. Classical Journal 107/1, 31–59.

Villing, A., Schlotzhauer, U. 2006: Naukratis: Greek Diversity in Egypt Studies on East Greek Pottery and Exchange in the Eastern Mediterranean. London.

Waldbaum, J.C. 1994: Early Greek Contacts with the Southern Levant, ca. 1000–600 B.C.: The Eastern Perspective. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 293, 53–66.