The Title of the Lector Priest as a Component of the “Tomb Owner – Scene” System in the Egyptian Private Tomb of the Old Kingdom

Kulikov Fedor I.

This paper considers the functioning mechanism of the Egyptian private tomb of the Old Kingdom as a system of architectural and pictorial components. It argues that the large images of the nobleman with the mention of the lector priest title, as well as his images pictorially representing him as a lector priest, mark the main venues of the regular priestly service in the tomb – at the entrance, in the passage from one room to another, between the columns, in front of the serdab, and at the false door. The inclusion of the title of lector priest in the titulary of the tomb owner can be explained not by his lifetime status, but by the desire of the master to properly structure the architectural and graphic space of the tomb. Like the attributes in the hands of the tomb owner, the title of the lector priest provided the large images of the nobleman with an additional function of carrying out the priestly service and can be considered as one of the important components of the private tomb system.

Keywords: Ancient Egypt, mastaba, Egyptian tomb, Egyptian relief, system, lector priest

Altenmüller, H. 1995: Die Wanddarstellungen im Grab des Mehu in Saqqara. Mainz.

Badawy, A. 1978: The Tomb of Nyhetep-Ptah at Giza and the Tomb of Ankhmahor at Saqqara. Berkeley– Los Angeles–London.

Bolshakov, А.О. 1994: Hinting as a method of Old Kingdom tomb decoration. Göttinger Miszellen 139, 9–32.

Bolshakov, A.O. 1996: Man and His Double in Egyptian Ideology of the Old Kingdom. Wiesbaden.

Bolshakov, А.О. 2001: Chelovek i ego Dvoynik. Izobrazitel’nost’ i mirovozzrenie v Egipte Starogo Tsarstva [Man and his Double. Pictorialism and Worldview in Egypt of the Old Kingdom]. Saint Petersburg.

Большаков, А.О. Человек и его Двойник. Изобразительность и мировоззрение в Египте Старого царства. СПб.

Brovarski, E. 2003: The Senedjemib Complex. Pt. I. The Mastabas of Senedjemib Inti (G 2370), Khnumenti (G 2374), and Senedjemib Mehi (G 2378).(Giza Mastabas, 7). Boston.

Davies, W., El-Khouli A., Lloyd A., Spencer A. 1984: Saqqara Tombs I. The Mastabas of Mereri and Wernu.(ASE, 36). London.

Duell, P. 1938: The Mastaba of Mereruka. Pt. I–II. Chicago.

Dunham, D., Simpson, W.K. 1974: The Mastaba of Queen Mersyankh III (G 7530–7540).(Giza Mastabas, 1). Boston.

Epron, L. 1939: Le tombeau de Ti. Fasc. I. Les approches de la chapelle. Le Caire.

Hassan, S. 1936: Excavations at Giza. Vol. II. 1930–1931. Cairo.

Hassan, S. 1941: Excavations at Giza. Vol. III. 1931–1932. Cairo.

Hassan, S. 1943: Excavations at Giza. Vol. IV. 1932–1933. Cairo.

Junker, H. 1934: Giza II. Die Maṣṭabas der beginnenden V. Dynastie auf dem Westfriedhof. Wien–Leipzig.

Junker, H. 1938: Giza III. Die Maṣṭabas der vorgeschrittenen V. Dynastie auf dem Westfriedhof. Wien–Leipzig.

Junker, H. 1941: Giza V. Die Maṣṭaba des Śnb (Seneb) und die umliegenden Gräber. Wien–Leipzig.

Kanawati, N. 1980:The Rock Tombs of El-Hawawish. The Cemetery of Akhmim. Vol. I. Sydney.

Kanawati, N., Abder-Razid, M. 1999: The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara. Vol. III. The Tombs of Neferseshemre and Seankhuiptah. Warminster.

Kanawati, N., Hassan, A. 1996: The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara. Vol. I. The Tombs of Nedjet-em-pet, Kaaper and Others. Sydney.

Kanawati, N., Hassan, A. 1997: The Teti Cemetery at Saqqara. Vol. II. The Tomb of Ankhmahor. Warminster.

Kulikov, F.I. 2011: [The arrangement of the images of tomb owners as lector-priests in Old Kingdom tombs]. Vestnik drevney istorii [Journal of Ancient History] 1, 53–61.

Куликов, Ф.И. Размещение изображений вельмож-херихебов в староегипетских гробницах. ВДИ 1, 53–63.

Kulikov, F.I. 2012: [Priest service as depicted in chapels of Old Egyptian private tombs: some principles of composition]. Vestnik drevney istorii [Journal of Ancient History] 2, 102–118.

Куликов, Ф.И. Изображение жреческой службы в часовне староегипетских частных гробниц: некоторые принципы построения сюжета. ВДИ 2, 102–118.

Kulikov, F.I. 2013: [Sceptre and kerchief as correlates within the system of Old Kingdom tomb decoration at the level “tomb owner – scene”]. In: Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha. T. 66. Peterburgskie egiptologicheskie chteniya 2011–2012. [Transactions of the State Hermitage Museum. Vol. 66. St. Petersburg Egyptological Readings 2011–2012]. Saint Petersburg, 87–102.

Куликов, Ф.И. Жезл и платок как корреляты в системе оформления староегипетской частной гробницы уровня «хозяин – сцена». В сб.: Труды Государственного Эрмитажа. Т. 66. Петербургские египтологические чтения 2011–2012. СПб, 87–102.

Säve-Söderbergh, T. 1994: The Old Kingdom Cemetery at Hamra Dom (El-Qasr wa es-Saiyad). Stockholm.

Simpson, W.K. 1976: The Mastabas of Qar and Idu. G 7101 and 7102. (Giza Mastabas, 2). Boston.

Simpson, W.K. 1978: The Mastabas of Kawab, Khafkhufu I and II. (Giza Mastabas, 3). Boston.

Simpson, W.K. 1980: The Mastabas of Western Cemetery. Pt. I. (Giza Mastabas, 4). Boston.