Μετονоμασία as an Instrument of Dynastic Politics in the Hellenistic World

Berzon Ekaterina M., Gabelko Oleg L.

The article considers all the examples of changes of name in the Hellenistic royal dynasties known from the sources (and partly reconstructed on the basis of indirect data). The authors attempt to explore the goals, meaning and significance of such actions. The practice of accepting the throne name directly upon accession to the throne was widely used by the Achaemenids, and in the Hellenistic world it spread after the change of name of Arrhidaeus, the half-brother of Alexander the Great, to Philip (III) in 323 BC, when he was proclaimed king. A change of name was carried out more often directly by the assuming the royal title in order to give one of the “main” throne names to one or another member of the royal house, who was not initially intended to be a king, but for some reason received the right to the throne. This is most clearly seen in the dynastic history of Cappadocia and Pontus – apparently, in accordance with the Achaemenid patterns. Sometimes a change of name was used in the situation of interference in the internal affairs of other states with the aim to put on the throne a member of the “outer” royal house, changing its name to the traditional one for the dynasty of that country. Finally, some cases of metonomacy (especially in the Seleucid state) reflected the collisions of a specific situation and could be associated with a wide variety of factors.

Keywords: Hellenistic word, royal dynasties, practices of name-giving, change of name

Allen, R.E.: The Attalid Kingdom. A Constitutional History. Oxford.

Badian, E. 2000: Darius III. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 100, 241–267.

Balakhvantsev, A.S. 2011: [“New” rescript of Ziaelas of Bithynia]. Vestnik drevney istorii [Journal of Ancient History] 1, 74–92.

Балахванцев, А.С. «Новый» рескрипт Зиела Вифинского. ВДИ 1, 74–92.

Ballesteros Pastor, L. 1996: Mitrídates Eupátor, rey del Ponto. Granada.

Ballesteros Pastor, L. 2001–2002: Pharnaces I of Pontus and the Kingdom of Pergamum. Talanta 22/23, 61–66.

Ballesteros Pastor, L. 2005: El reino del Ponto. In: V.A. Troncoso (ed.). ΔΙΑΔΟΧΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑΣ. La figura del sucesor en la realeza helenística. (Gerión Anejos. Serie de Monografías. Anejo IX). Madrid, 127–138.

Ballesteros Pastor, L. 2013a: Eupator’s unmarried sisters: an approach to the dynastic struggle in Pontus after the death of Mithridates V Euergetes. Anabasis 4, 61–72.

Ballesteros Pastor, L. 2013b: Pompeyo Trogo, Justino y Mitrídates. Commentario al Epítome de las Historias Filípicas (37, 1, 6–38, 8, 1). Hildesheim–Zürich–New York.

Ballesteros Pastor, L. 2015: Los príncipes del Ponto. La política onomástica de Mitridates Eupátor como factor de propaganda dinástica. Revue des études anciennes 117, 2, 425–445.

Bartlett, B. 2016: The fate of Kleopatra Tryphaina, or: Poetic justice in Justin. In: A. Coşkun, A. McAuley (eds.), Seleukid Royal Women. Creation, Representation and Distortion of Hellenistic Queenship in the Seleukid Empire. Stuttgart, 135–142.

Beloch, K.J. 1927: Griechische Geschichte. Bd IV. 2. Berlin–Leipzig.

Bennett, C. 1997: Cleopatra V Tryphaina and the genealogy of the later Ptolemies. Ancient Society 28, 39–66.

Berzon, E.M. 2015: [Antiochus, the heir and co-ruler of King Antiochus the Great]. Problemy istorii, filologii, kultury [Questions of History, Philology, Culture] 2, 52–64.

Берзон, Е.М. Антиох – наследник и соправитель великого царя Антиоха. ПИФК 2, 52–64.

Billows, R. 1995: Kings and Colonists: Aspects of Macedonian Imperialism. Leiden–New York–Köln.

Bokshchanin, A.G.: 1960 Parfiya i Rim. Vozniknovenie sistemy politicheskogo dualizma na Perednem Vostoke [Parthia and Rome. The Emergence of a System of Political Dualism in the Middle East]. Part. I. Moscow.

Бокщанин, А.Г. Парфия и Рим. Возникновение системы политического дуализма на Переднем Востоке. Ч. I. М.

Braund, D.C. 1984: Rome and the Friendly King: the Character of Client Kingship. London–Canberra–New York.

Breglia Pulci Doria, L. 1978: Diodoro e Ariarate V. Confliti dinastici, tradizione e propaganda politica nella Cappadocia del II secolo A. C. La parola del passato 33, 104–129.

Briscoe, J. 1973: A Commentary on Livy, Books XXXI–XXXIII. Oxford.

Callataÿ, F., de 1997: L’Histoire des guerres Mithridatiques vue par les monnaies. Louvain-la-Neuve.

Carbone, F.L. 2016: ‘Romanizing’ Asia: the Impact of Roman imperium on the Administrative and Monetary Systems of the Provincia Asia (133 BC – 96 AD). Ph. D. Diss. Univ. of Columbia. URL: https://doi.org/10.7916/D8222TP0

Carney, E. 2001: The trouble with Philip Arrhidaeus. Ancient History Bulletin 15, 1–2, 63–89.

Carney, E. 2006: Olympias. Mother of Alexander the Great. New York.

Chaniotis, A. 2005: [Theatricality beyond the theatre. Staging public life in the Hellenistic world] Antiquitas aeterna 1, 155–190.

Ханиотис, А. Театральность вне театра. «Постановка» общественной жизни в эллинистическом мире. Antiquitas Aeterna 1, 155–190.

Chrubasik, B. 2016: Kings and Usurpers in the Seleukid Empire: The Men who would be King. Oxford.

Coşkun, A. 2016a: Laodike Ι, Berenike Phernophoros, dynastic murder, and the outbreak of the Third Syrian War (253–246 BC). In: A. Coşkun, A. McAuley (eds.), Seleukid Royal Women. Creation, Representation and Distortion of Hellenistic Queenship in the Seleukid Empire. Stuttgart, 107–134.

Coşkun, 2016b: Philologische, genealogische und politische Überlegungen zu Ardys und Mithradates, zwei Söhnen des Antiochos Megas (Liv. 33.19.9). Latomus 75, 4, 850–861.

D’Agostini, M. 2013: La strutturazione del potere seleucidico in Anatolia: il caso di Acheo il Vecchio e Alessandro di Sardi. Erga-Logoi 1, 87–106.

Daubner, F. 2006: Bellum Asiaticum. Der Krieg der Römer gegen Aristonikos von Pergamon und die Einrichtung der Provinz Asia. München.

Dumitru, A.G. 2016: Kleopatra Selene – a look at the Moon and her bright side. In: A. Coşkun, A. McAuley (eds.). Seleukid Royal Women. Creation, Representation and Distortion of Hellenistic Queenship in the Seleukid Empire. Stuttgart, 253–272.

Dumont, J.C. 1987: Servus. Rome et l’esclavage sous la République. Roma.

Ehling, K. 2008: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der späten Seleukiden (163–63 v. Chr.). Stuttgart.

Ellis, J.R. 1973: The step-brothers of Philip II. Historia 22, 350–354.

Engels, D. 2011: Ein syrisches Sizilien? Seleukidische Aspekte des ersten sizilischen Sklavenkriegs und der Herrschaft des Eunus-Antiochos. Polifemo 11, 233–251.

Engels, D., Erickson, K. 2016: Apama and Stratonike – marriage and legitimacy. In: A. Coşkun, A. McAuley (eds.), Seleukid Royal Women. Creation, Representation and Distortion of Hellenistic Queenship in the Seleukid Empire. Stuttgart, 39–66.

Fraser, P.M. 2009a: Hellenistic Eponymous Cities and Ethnics. In: P. M. Fraser, Greek Ethnic Terminology. A Lexicon of Greek Personal Names. Supplementary Volume. Oxford, 167–178.

Fraser, P.M. 2009b Name-Changes and ‘Posthumous’ Ethnics. In: P. M. Fraser, Greek Ethnic Terminology. A Lexicon of Greek Personal Name. Supplementary volume. Oxford, 148–165.

Gabelko, O.L. 2005а: [The dynastic history of Hellenistic monarchies of Asia Minor according to the “Chronography” by George Synkellos], Antiquitas aeterna 1, 86–106.

Габелко, О. Л. Династическая история эллинистических монархий Малой Азии по данным «Хронографии» Синкелла, Antiquitas aeterna 1, 86–106.

Gabelko, O.L. 2005b: Istoriya Vifinskogo tsarstva [The History of the Bithynian Kingdom]. Saint Petersburg.

Габелко, О. Л. История Вифинского царства. СПб.

Gabelko, O.L. 2009a: The dynastic history of Hellenistic monarchies of Asia Minor according to the “Chronography” by George Synkellos. In: J.-M. Højte (ed.), Mithridates VI and the Pontic Kingdom. Aarhus, 47–61.

Gabelko, O.L. 2009b: [On the dynastic history of Hellenistic Cappadocia: the Ariarathid royal house]. Antichnyy mir i atkheologiya [Classical World and Archaeology] 13, 92–119.

Габелко, О.Л. К династической истории эллинистической Каппадокии: царский дом Ариаратидов. АМА 13, 92–119.

Gabelko, О.L. 2013: A historical and epigraphic commentary on Hypsicrateia’s epitaph. In: A. Mehl, A. Makhlayuk, O. Gabelko (eds.), Ruthenia Classica Aetatis Novae: A Collection of Works by Russian Scholars in Ancient Greek and Roman History. Stuttgart, 173–184.

Gabelko, O.L. 2014: [Some questions of the coinage of the Pontic kings in the 2nd cent. BC]. In: A.V. Akopyan, T.N. Jakson (eds.), ΠΟΛΥΤΡΟΠΟΣ. Sbornik nauchnyh statey pamyati Arkadiya Anatol’evicha Molchanova [ΠΟΛΥΤΡΟΠΟΣ. Collection of articles in memoriam Arkady Anatol’evich Molchanov]. Moscow, 285–296.

Габелко, О.Л. Некоторые проблемы монетного чекана понтийских царей во ΙΙ в. до н. э. В сб.: А.В. Акопян, Т.Н. Джаксон (ред.), ΠΟΛΥΤΡΟΠΟΣ. Сборник научных статей памяти Аркадия Анатольевича Молчанова. М., 285–296.

Gabelko, O.L. 2018 (forthcoming): On the “language of power” in Hellenistic monarchy. In: P. Rhodes, O. Gabelko, V. Goušchin (eds.), One Man Rule in the Ancient World.

Gabelko, O.L., Kuzmin, Yu.N. 2008: [The matrimonial politics of Demetrius II of Macedon: new solutions of old problems]. Vestnik drevney istorii [Journal of Ancient History] 1, 141–164.

Габелко, О.Л., Кузьмин, Ю.Н. Матримониальная политика Деметрия II Македонского: новые решения старых проблем. ВДИ 1, 141–164.

Gabelko, O.L., Zavoikin, A.A. 2004: [Once more on the Bithynian-Ponitic-Bosporan Era]. In: V.Yu. Zuev et al. (eds.), Bosporskiy fenomen. Problemy datirovki i khronologii pamyatnikov [The Questions of Dating and Chronology of the Monements]. I. Saint Petersburg, 74–81.

Габелко, О.Л., Завойкин, А.А. Еще раз о вифинско-понтийско-боспорской эре. В сб: В.Ю. Зуев и др. (ред.), Боспорский феномен: Проблемы датировки и хронологии памятников. I. СПб., 74–81.

Ghiţa, C.E. 2011: Nysa – a Seleucid princess in Anatolian context. In: K. Erickson, G. Ramsey (eds.), Seleucid Dissolution. The Sinking of the Anchor, 107–116.

Glew, D. 2005: Nicomedes’ name. Epigraphica Anatolica 38, 131–137.

Grainger, J.D. 1997: A Seleukid Prosopography and Gazetteer. Leiden–New York–Köln.

Günther, L.-M. 1995: Kappadokien, die seleukidische Heiratspolitik und die Rolle der Antiochis, Tochter Antiochos’ I. In: Studien zum antiken Kleinasien III. (Asia Minor Studien, 16). Bonn, 47–61.

Gulenkov, K.L. 2001: [Orientalistic and Hellenistic in the family of Mithridates Eupator]. In: O.L. Gabelko, V.D. Zhigunin, Ye.A. Chiglintsev (eds.), Antichnost’: Obshchestvo i idei [Antiquity: Society and Ideas]. Kazan, 71–83.

Гуленков, К.Л. Ориенталистическое и эллинистическое в семье Митридата Евпатора. В кн.: О.Л. Габелко, В.Д. Жигунин, Е.А. Чиглинцев (ред.), Античность: общество и идеи. Казань, 71– 83.

Hannestad, L. 1996: “This contributes in no small way to one’s reputation”: the Bithynian kings and Greek culture. In: P. Bilde et al. (eds.). Aspects of Hellenistic Kingship. Studies in Hellenistic Civilization. 5, Aarhus, 67–98.

Harders, A.-C. 2016: The making of a queen – Seleukos Nikator and his wives. In: A. Coşkun, A. McAuley (eds.), Seleukid Royal Women. Creation, Representation and Distortion of Hellenistic Queenship in the Seleukid Empire. Stuttgart, 25–38.

Heckel, W. 1978: Kleopatra or Eurydike? Phoenix 32, 155–158.

Heckel, W. 1981: Polyxena, the mother of Alexander the Great. Chiron 11, 79–86.

Helliesen, J.M. 1981: Demetrius I Soter: a Seleucid king with an Antigonid name. In: H.J. Dell (ed.), Ancient Macedonian Studies in Honor of Charles F. Edson. Thessaloniki, 219–228.

Holleaux, M. 1912: Ardys et Mithridates. Hermes 47, 4, 481–491.

Hopp, J. 1977: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der letzten Attaliden. München.

Ilan, T. 1987: The Greek names of the Hasmoneans. The Jewish Quarterly Review, New Series 78, 1/2, 1–20.

Justi, F. 1895: Iranisches Namenbuch. Marburg.

Klimov, O.Yu. 2010: Pergamskoe tsarstvo. Problemy politicheskoy istorii i gosudarstvennogo usroystva [The Kingdom of Pergamon. Political Institutions and History]. Saint Petersburg.

Климов, О.Ю. Пергамское царство. Проблемы политической истории и государственного устройства. СПб.

Kuzmin, Yu.N. 2009: [F. W. Walbank and the questions of Macedonian state-system in the Hellenistic epoch]. In: O.L. Gabelko (ed.), Politika, ideologiya, istoriografiya v rimsko-ellinisticheskom mire [Politics, Ideology, Historiography in the Roman-Hellenistic World]. Kazan, 22–30.

Кузьмин, Ю.Н. Ф.У. Уолбанк и проблемы государственности Македонии в эпоху эллинизма. В кн.: Габелко О.Л. (ред.), Политика, идеология, историография в римско-эллинистическом мире. Казань, 22–30.

Kuzmin, Yu.N., Gabelko, O.L. 2012: [Some notes on the Antigonid matrimonial politics in the 50s‑20s of the 3rd cent. BC]. Problemy istorii, filologii, kul’tury [The Questions of History, Philology, Culture] 1, 27–46.

Кузьмин, Ю.Н., Габелко, О.Л. Заметки о матримониальной политике Антигонидов в 50-е‑20-е гг. III в. до н. э. ПИФК 1, 27–46.

Kuznetsov, V.D. 2007: [New inscriptions from Phanagoria]. Vestnik drevney istorii [Journal of Ancient History] 1, 227–243.

Кузнецов, В.Д. Новые надписи из Фанагории. ВДИ 1, 227–243.

Ma, J. 2000: Antiochus III and the Cities of Western Asia Minor. Oxford.

Macurdy, G.H. 1985: Hellenistic Queens: A Study of Women-Power in Macedonia, Seleucid Syria, and Ptolemaic Egypt. Chicago.

Maróti, E. 1967: Bewusstheit und ideologische Faktoren in den Sklavenbewegungen (Eunus und Atargatis). Acta antiqua Academiae scientiarum Hungaricae 15, 319–326.

Merkelbach, R. 2000: Wer war Alexandros, zu dem Asoka eine Gesandtschaft geschickt hat? Epigraphica Anatolica 32, 126–128.

Mørkholm, O. 1978: The coinages of Ariarathes VI and Ariarathes VII of Cappadocia. Schweizerische numismatische Rundschau 57, 144–163.

Muccioli, F. 2010: Antioco III e la politica onomastica dei Seleucidi. Electrum 18, 81–96.

Ogden, D. 1999: Polygamy, Prostitutes and Death. The Hellenistic Dynasties. London–Swansea.

Ostermann, S. 2005: Die Münzen der Hasmonäer. Eine kritische Bericht zur Systematik und Chronologie. Göttingen.

Panitschek, P. 1987–1988: Zu den genealogischen Konstruktionen der Dynastien von Pontos und Kappadokien. Rivista di storia antica 17–18, 73–95.

Pestman, P.W. 1967: Chronologie égyptienne d’après les textes démotiques (332 avant J.-C. – 453 après J.-C.) Leiden.

Portanova, J.J. 1988: The Associates of Mithridates Eupator. Ph.D. Diss. Univ. of Columbia. Ann Arbor.

Ramsey, G. 2016: The diplomacy of Seleukid women. In: A. Coşkun, A. McAuley (eds.). Seleukid Royal Women. Creation, Representation and Distortion of Hellenistic Queenship in the Seleukid Empire. Stuttgart, 87–104.

Reinach, Th. 1895: Mithridates Eupator, König von Pontos. Leipzig.

Robert, L. 1963: Noms indigènes dans l’Asie-Mineure gréco-romaine. Paris.

Robinson, E.S. 1954: Cistophori in the name of King Eumenes. Numismatic Chronicle 14, 1–8.

Saprykin, S.Yu. 1996: Pontiyskoe tsarstvo. Gosudarstvo grekov i varvarov v Prichernomor’e [The Pontic Kingdom. The State of Greeks and Barbarians in the Black Sea Region]. Moscow.

Сапрыкин, С.Ю. Понтийское царство: государство греков и варваров в Причерноморье. М.

Saprykin, S.Yu. 2012: [The Pontic Kingdom and the Sekeukids]. In: S.Yu. Saprykin et al. (eds.), Vostok, Evropa, Amerika v drevnosti. Vyp. 2. Sbornik nauchnyh trudov XVII Sergeevskikh chteniy [East. Europe, America in Antiquity. Issue 2. Collection of Papers of XVII Sergeev’s Readings]. Moscow, 124–135.

Сапрыкин, С.Ю. Понтийское царство и Селевкиды. В сб.: Сапрыкин С.Ю. и др. (ред.), Восток, Европа, Америка в древности. Вып. 2. Сборник научных трудов XVII Сергеевских чтений. М., 124– 135.

Schmitt, H. 1964: Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Antiochos’ des Grossen und seiner Zeit. Wiesbaden.

Schmitt, R. 1977: Thronnamen bei den Achaimeniden. Beiträge zur Namenforschung 12, 422–425.

Schmitt, R. 1982: Achaemenid Throne-Names. AION 42, 1, 83–95.

Seibert, J. 1967: Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit. Wiesbaden.

Simonetta, A.M. 2009: Revision and catalogue of the Cappadocian kings coinage in the Simonetta collection. Parthica 9, 11–152.

Simonetta, B. 1977: The Coins of the Cappadocian Kings. Fribourg.

Sprawski, S. 2008: Writing local history: Archemachus and his Euboika. In: J. Pigoń (ed.), The Children of Herodotus: Greek and Roman Historiography and Realated Genres. Cambridge, 102–118.

Strootman, R. 2014: Courts and Elites in the Hellenistic Empires: The Near East after the Achaemenids, c. 330 to 30 BCE. Edinburgh.

Sullivan, R.D. 1980: The dynasty of Cappadocia. In: Aufstieg und Niedergang der Römischen Welt. II. Bd 7. 2. Berlin–New York, 1125–1168.

Surikov, I.E. 2007: [Ruler’s names in the Spartokid state (on some problems of Greek political onomastics)]. Drevnosti Bospora [The Bosporan Antiquities] 11, 379–393.

Суриков, И.Е. Имена правителей в государстве Спартокидов (о нескольких дискуссионных проблемах древнегреческой политической ономастики). Древности Боспора 11, 380–393.

Tarn, W.W. 1940: Phthia-Chryseis. In: Athenian Studies Presented to W.S. Ferguson. (Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. Supplementary Volume 1). Cambridge (Mass.), 483–501.

Tcherikover, V. 2010: Ellinisticheskaya tsivilizatsiya i evrei [Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews]. Russian transl. Saint Petersburg.

Чериковер, В. Эллинистическая цивилизация и евреи. СПб.

Whitehorne, J. 2002: Cleopatras. New York.

Wilker, J. 2016: A Dynasty without women? The Hasmoneans between Jewish tradition and Hellenistic influence. In: A. Coşkun, A. McAuley (eds.), Seleukid Royal Women. Creation, Representation and Distortion of Hellenistic Queenship in the Seleukid Empire. Stuttgart, 231–252.

Wörrle, M. 1975: Antiochos I., Achaios der Ältere und die Galater. Eine neue Inschrift in Denizli. Chiron 1975, 59–87.

Zavoikin, A.A. 2006: [On the institute of the Spartokid dynastic names]. Drevnosti Bospora [The Bosporan Antiquities] 10, 214–262.

Завойкин, А.А. Об институте династических имен Спартокидов. Древности Боспора 10, 214–262.