Two Women from the Tomb of Lyson and Kallikles

Kuzmin Yuri N.

The Tomb of Lyson and Kallikles was built at the turn of the 3rd and 2nd cent. BC and was used by four generations of an aristocratic family from Mieza in Macedonia. Sparte, the daughter of Lyson (I) and the wife of Euippos, probably her uncle, belonged to the first generation; Stratonike, the daughter of Lyson (II) and the wife of Hippias, was the last known member of that family. The name Sparte is attested in Macedonia only twice and only in this family (LGPN IV s.v. Σπάρτη). We can assume that Lyson (I) participated in the Cleomenean War (229–222 BC) and named his daughter to commemorate the Macedonian’s victory over Sparta (cf. the name Thessalonike, the daughter of Philip II). A man with the same name as that of Stratonike’s husband (Hippias) is attested among the retinue of King Perseus. He was from Beroia, a neighboring city to Mieza. According to LGPN IV, the name Ἱππίας was rare in Macedonia. It is significant that Stratonike was buried in the tomb of her original family, not in the tomb of her husband; this means that for some reason Stratonike had returned home. After the battle of Pydna Hippias, the philos of Perseus, surrendered to the Romans and obviously was deported to Italy in 167 BC along with other members of the Macedonian court elite and their sons over 15 years old. However, their wives, daughters and sons under 15 years of age apparently stayed in Macedonia. If the hypothesis about Stratonike’s husband as a man from the retinue of Perseus is correct, we have a reason for a reconstruction of a wedding alliance between aristocratic families from neighboring Macedonian cities, Mieza and Beroia. We can also trace the fate of the wives of Perseus’ philoi after the deportation of the Macedonian court elite to Italy.

Keywords: Macedonia, Antigonids, “Macedonian tombs”, Mieza, The Tomb of Lyson and Kallikles, Sparte, Stratonike, Hippias, onomastics, prosopography

Allamani, V., Koukouvou, A., Psarra, I. 2009: Μίεζα, πόλη Ημαθίας [Mieza, city in Imathia]. To Αρχαιολογικό έργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη [Archaeological Work in Macedonia and Thrace] 20, 17–30.

Carney, E.D. 2000: Women and Monarchy in Macedonia. Norman (OK).

Carney, E.D. 2010: Macedonian Women. In: J. Roisman, I. Worthington (eds), A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Malden (Mass.), 409–427.

Hammond, N.G.L., Griffith, G.T. 1979: A History of Macedonia. Vol. II. 550–336 B. C. Oxford.

Hammond, N.G.L., Walbank, F.W. 1988: A History of Macedonia. Vol. III. 336–167 B. C. Oxford.

Hatzopoulos, M.B. 1996: Macedonian Institutions under the Kings. Vol. I. A Historical and Epigraphic Study. Athens.

Hatzopoulos, M.B. 2001: L’organisation de l’armée macédonienne sous les Antigonides: problèmes anciens et documents nouveaux. Athènes.

Kuzmin, Yu.N. 2011: [Macedonia capta: the deportation of the Macedonian military and political elite to Italy in 167 B.C.]. Studia historica XI, 119–130.

Кузьмин, Ю. Н. Macedonia capta: депортация македонской военно-политической элиты в Италию в 167 г. до н.э. Studia historica XI, 119–130.

Kuzmin, Yu.N. 2013: Aristokratiya Beroi v epokhu ellinizma [The Aristocracy of Beroia in the Hellenistic Epoch]. Moscow.

Кузьмин, Ю. Н. Аристократия Берои в эпоху эллинизма. Москва.

Le Bohec, S. 1985: Les philoi des rois Antigonides. Revue des études grecques 98, 93–124.

Le Bohec, S. 1993: Antigone Dôsôn, roi de Macédoine. Nancy.

Makaronas, Ch. 1953: Χρονικά αρχαιολογικά [Archaeological chronicles]. Makedonika 2 (1941–1952), 590–677.

Makaronas, Ch.I., Miller, S.G. 1974: The Tomb of Lyson and Kallikles: a painted hellenistic tomb. Archaeology 27.4, 248–259.

Mangoldt, H. von 2012: Makedonische Grabarchitektur. Die Makedonischen Kammergräber und ihre Vorläufer. Bd I–II. Tübingen.

Meloni, P. 1953: Perseo e la fine della monarchia macedone. Roma.

Miller, S.G. 1993: The Tomb of Lyson and Kallikles. A Painted Macedonian Tomb. Mainz.

O’Neil, J.L. 2003: The ethnic origins of the friends of the Antigonid kings of Macedon. Classical Quarterly 53.2, 510–522.

Olshausen, E. 1974: Prosopographie der hellenistischen Königsgesandten. Tl I. Von Triparadeisos bis Pydna. Louvain.

Sekunda, N.V. 2013: The Antigonid Army. Gdańsk.

Tataki, A.B. 1988: Ancient Beroea: Prosopography and Society. Athens.

Tronson, A. 1984: Satyrus the Peripatetic and the marriages of Philip II. Journal of Hellenic Studies 104, 116–126.

Walbank, F.W. 1979: A Historical Commentary on Polybius. Vol. III. Books XIX–XL. Oxford.