Problems of Polis Cults Financing in Athens in the 5th – 4th Centuries BC

Lenskaya Valeria S.

Comparing various definitions of polis cult, the author observes that all these definitions imply that polis cults should have been financed by the state. She analyses the mechanisms of distributing money among various cults, which were divided by the Athenians into πάτριοι and ἐπίθετοι, and comes to the conclusion that in both cases the cults were supported by the money received for renting out sacred plots belonging to the state, but after the establishment of the treasury of “other gods” also by the money accumulated by the local sanctuaries, partly controlled by the demes. In conclusion, the author reconsiders the “mixed type” cults, financed partly by the families who retained a certain degree of control over the cults.

Keywords: Athens, demes, sanctuaries, polis cult, cult financing

Andreev, V.N. 1967: [Attic Public Landownership V–III BC]. Vestnik drevney istorii [Journal of Ancient History] 2, 48–76. 

Blok, J. 2010: Deme Accounts and the Meaning of hosios Money in Fifth-Century Athens. Mnemosyne 63, 61–93.

Blok, J. 2014: A “Covenant” between Gods and Men: Hiera kai Hosia and the Greek Polis. In: C. Rapp, H. A. Drake (eds.), The City in the Classical and Postclassical World. Changing Contexts of Power and Identity. Cambridge, 14–37.

Boeckh, A. 1817: Die Staatshaushaltung der Athener. 2. Bd. Berlin.

Clinton, K. 1974: The Sacred Officials of the Eleusinian Mysteries. Philadelphia.

Deubner, L. 1932: Attische Feste. Berlin.

Ferguson, W.S. 1932: The Treasurers of Athena. Cambridge (Mass.).

Garland, R. 1984: Religious Authority in Archaic and Classical Athens. The Annual of the British School at Athens 79, 75–123.

Giovannini, A. 1990: Le Parthénon, le trésor d’Athéna et le tribut des alliés. Historia 39, 129–148.

Harris, D. 1995: The Treasures of the Parthenon and Erechtheion. Oxford.

Humphreys, S.C. 2004: The Strangeness of Gods. Historical Perspectives on the Interpretation of Athenian Religion. Oxford.

Jeffery, L.H. 1948: The Boustrophedon Sacral Inscriptions from the Agora. Hesperia 17, 86–111.

Kallet-Marx, L. 1989: Did Tribute Fund the Parthenon? Classical Antiquity 8, 252–266.

Kasatkina, N.A. 1988: [Toward the Problem of Athenian Control over conquered Samos]. In: Iz istorii antichnogo obshhestva [From the History of Ancient Society]. Gor’kij, 5–11. 

Koshelenko, G.A., Marinovich, L.P. 2000: Sud’ba Parfenona [The Fate of the Parthenon]. Moscow. 

Kourouniotis, K. 1927–1928: [The Sanctuary of Apollo Zoster]. In: Archaiologikon Deltion 11, 9–53. 

Κουρουνιώτης, Κ. Τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος τοῦ Ζωστῆρος. Αρχαιολογικν δελτίον 11, 9–53.

Lambert, S. 2002: The Sacrificial Calendar of Athens. The Annual of the British School at Athens 97, 353–399.

Lambert, S. 2010: A Polis and its Priests: Athenian Priesthoods before and after Pericles’ Citizenship Law. Historia 59, 143–175.

Lenskaya, V.S. 2012a: [The Types of Cults in Athens]. In: Vostok, Evropa, Amerika v drevnosti [East, Europe, America in antiquity. Issue 2. Proceedings of XVII Sergeevskie chteniya]. Moscow, 80–90. 

Lenskaya, V.S. 2012b: [The Hieropoioi in Ancient Greece]. Problemy istorii, filologii, kul’tury [The Problems of History, Philology, Culture] 4, 179–191. 

Lenskaya, V.S. 2013: [Athenian family Salaminioi and its cults]. Studia historica 13, 27–40. 

Lenskaya, V.S. 2015: [Problems of Organization of Religious Life in Attic Demes in the 5th‑4th Cent. B.C.]. Vestnik drevney istorii [Journal of Ancient History] 1, 94–108. 

Linders, T. 1975: The Treasurers of the Other Gods in Athens and their Functions. Meisenheim am Glan.

Makarova, O.M. 2009: Kul’t bogini Afiny v pervom morskom sojuze [The Cult of Athena in the First Athenian League]. Samara. 

Martha, J. 1882: Les sacerdoces athéniens. Paris.

Meiggs, R., Lewis, D. 1969: A Selection of Greek Historical Inscriptions to the End of the Fifth Century BC. Oxford.

Meritt, B.D. 1928: The Athenian Calendar in the Fifth Century, Based on a Study of the Detailed Accounts of Money Borrowed by the Athenian State. Cambridge (Mass.).

Meritt, B.D., Wade-Gery, H.T., McGregor, M.F. 1950: The Athenian Tribute Lists. Vol III. Princeton.

Meritt, B.D. 1982: Thucydides and the Decrees of Kallias. In: Studies in Attic Epigraphy, History and Topography Presented to Eugene Vanderpool. (Hesperia. Suppl. 19). Princeton, 112–121.

Migeotte, L. 2014: Les finances des cités grecques aux périodes classique et hellénistique. Paris.

Mikalson, J.D. 1977: Religion in the Attic Demes. The American Journal of Philology 98, 424–435.

Oliver, J. 1935: Greek Inscriptions. Hesperia. 4, 5–70.

Papazarkadas, N. 2011: Sacred and Public Land in ancient Athens. Oxford.

Parker, R. 1997: Athenian Religion: A History. Oxford.

Pritchard, D. 2015: Public Spending and Democracy in Classical Athens. Austin.

Rhodes, P. 1991: The Athenian Codes of Laws, 410–399 BC. The Journal of Hellenic Studies 111, 87–100.

Rhodes, P. 1993: A Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia. Oxford.

Rhodes, P. 2007: The Organization of Athenian Public Finance. Greece and Rome 60, 203–231.

Robertson, N. 1990: The Laws of Athens, 410–399 BC: The Evidence for Review and Publication. The Journal of Hellenic Studies 110, 43–75.

Rosivach, V. 1994: The System of Public Sacrifice in Fourth-Century Athens. (American Philological Association, American Classical Studies, 34). Atlanta.

Samons, L. 2000: Empire of the Owl. Athenian Imperial Finance. Stuttgart.

Shear, J.L. 2003: Prizes from Athens: The List of Panathenaic Prizes and the Sacred Oil. Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 142, 87–105.

Thompson, W. 1967: Notes on Athenian Finance. Classica et mediaevalia 28, 216–239.

Thompson, W. 1971: The Neokoroi of Poseidon Hippios. Hesperia 40, 232–234.

Thompson, W. 1973: Internal Evidence for the Date of Kallias Decrees. The Classical Quarterly 48, 24–46.

Wade-Gery, H.T. 1931: The Financial Decrees of Kallias. The Journal of Hellenic Studies 51, 57–85. 

Wade-Gery, H.T., Meritt, B.D. 1947: The Decrees of Kallias. Hesperia 16, 279–286.

Walbank, M. 1983: Leases of Sacred Property in Attica. P. I–IV. Hesperia 52, 100–135; 177–199; 200–206; 207–231.

Wilson, P. 2008: Costing the Dyonysia. In: M. Revermann, P. Wilson (eds.), Performance, Reception, Iconography: Studies in Honour of Oliver Taplin. Oxford, 88–127.