An Indian (?) Bronze Mirror from a 4th Century BC Nomad Grave in the Southern Urals

Ravich Irina G., Sirotin S. V., Treister Mikhail Yu.

The authors publish a grave with a burial of two women discovered in 2009 during the excavation of Yakovlevka II burial mound conducted by the expedition of Sterlitamak State Pedagogical University under the guidance of S.V. Sirotin. The paper describes the burial inventory, which makes it possible to date the burial broadly within the 4th century BC, probably to its middle or third quarter. Special attention is paid to the so-called musical mirror with a multi-figure composition on the decorative plate. This is the fifth find of this kind, such mirrors being known in Altai and in the Southern Urals. Technological analysis of the mirror from Yakovlevka, as well as of the one from the Mechetsai barrow burial-ground, makes it possible to assume that the technology of high tin bronze hot forging came from India to the Southern Urals in the 4th sentury BC.

Keywords: Southern Urals, Altai, nomads, Yakovlevka II burial mound, Indian mirrors, bronze mirrors, technology of high tin bronze hot forging
References:
  1. Anikeeva O.V. 2011: Primenenie mineralogo-tehnologicheskogo analiza dlja izuchenija kamennyh bus rannih kochevnikov Juzhnogo Urala // Pogrebal'nyj obrjad rannih kochevnikov Evrazii. Materialy i issledovanija po arheologii Juga Rossii. III / L.T. Jablonskij, S.I. Luk'jashko (red.). Rostov-na-Donu, 11–23.
  2. Anikeeva O.V. v pechati: Ukrashenija ahemenidskogo kruga iz cvetnogo kamnja (na primere izuchenija kamennyh bus iz kurganov rannih kochevnikov Juzhnogo Urala) // Vlijanija ahemenidskoj kul'tury v Juzhnom Priural'e (V–III vv. do n.je.) / M.Ju. Trejster, L.T. Jablonskij (red.).
  3. Berlizov N.E. 2009: Eshhe raz o proishozhdenii zerkal Hazanov-VIII // Istoriko-arheologicheskij al'manah. 9, 58–68.
  4. Bolelov S.B. v pechati: Sredneaziatskaja keramika v pamjatnikah kochevnikov Juzhnogo Urala i Severo-Zapadnogo Kazahstana // Vlijanija ahemenidskoj kul'tury v Juzhnom Priural'e (V–III vv. do n.je.) / M.Ju. Trejster, L.T. Jablonskij (red.).
  5. Vasiljev V.N. 2004: K hronologii ranneprohorovskogo kompleksa // UAV. 5, 153–172.
  6. Vasiljev V.N. 2006: K hronologii v'juchnyh fljag rannih kochevnikov Juzhnogo Urala // Juzhnyj Ural i sopredel'nye territorii v skifo-sarmatskoe vremja. K 70-letiju Anatolija Haritonovicha Pshenichnjuka / G.T. Obydennova, N.S. Savel'ev (red.). Ufa, 58–62.
  7. Vasiljev S.S., Sljusarenko I.Yu., Chugunov K.V. 2003: Aktual'nye voprosy hronologii skifskogo vremeni Sajano-Altaja // Stepi Evrazii v drevnosti i srednevekov'e. K 100-letiju so dnja rozhdenija M.P. Grjaznova. 2 / Ju.Ju. Piotrovskij (red.). SPb., 24–27.
  8. Vasilkov Ya.V. 2003: Drevnejshie indijskie zerkala iz skifsko-sarmatskih kurganov Rossii // Stepi Evrazii v drevnosti i srednevekov'e. K 100-letiju so dnja rozhdenija M.P. Grjaznova. 2 / Ju.Ju. Piotrovskij (red.). SPb., 28–33.
  9. Gucalov S.Yu. 2004: Drevnie kochevniki Juzhnogo Priural'ja VII–I vv. do n.je. Ural'sk.
  10. Dvornichenko V.V., Fedorov-Davydov G.A. 1989: Raskopki kurganov v zone stroitel'stva Kalmycko-Astrahanskoj i Nikol'skoj risovyh orositel'nyh sistem // Sokrovishha sarmatskih vozhdej i drevnie goroda Povolzh'ja / K.A. Smirnov (red.). M., 14–132.
  11. Kat. Orenburg 2008:      Sokrovishha sarmatskih vozhdej (Materialy raskopok Filippovskih kurganov) / L.T. Jablonskij (red.). Orenburg.
  12. Kuznecova T.M. 1993: Vostochnye muzykal'nye zerkala // Peterburgskij arheologicheskij vestnik. 7. SPb., 82–87.
  13. Kuznecova T.M. 1995: Tri vostochnyh zerkala // Sohranenie i izuchenie kul'turnogo nasledija Altajskogo kraja. Vyp. V. Ch. 2. Barnaul, 124–128.
  14. Kuznecova T.M. 2001: Vse zerkala, zerkala… // Materialy po arheologii Volgo-Donskih stepej. 1 / I.V. Sergackov (red.). Volgograd, 128–141.
  15. Kuznecova T.M. 2002: Zerkala Skifii VI–III vv. do n.je. 1. M.
  16. Litvinskij B.A. 1978: Orudija truda i utvar' iz mogil'nikov Zapadnoj Fergany. M.
  17. Lylova E.V. 2001: Juvelirnye ukrashenija iz rannekochevnicheskih pogrebenij Juzhnogo Priural'ja v VI–IV vv. do n.je. // Arheologicheskie pamjatniki Orenburzh'ja. V. Orenburg, 126–137.
  18. Mazhitov N.A., Pshenichnjuk A.H. 1977: Kurgany rannesarmatskoj kul'tury v Juzhnoj i Jugo-Vostochnoj Bashkirii // Issledovanija po arheologii Juzhnogo Urala / R.G. Kuzeev (red.). Ufa, 52–66.
  19. Masson V.M. 1956: Pamjatniki kul'tury arhaicheskogo Dahistana v Jugo-Zapadnoj Turkmenii // Trudy JuTAKJe. VII / M.E. Masson (red.). Ashhabad, 385–458.
  20. Mogilnikov V.A., Umanskij A.P. 1995: Dva zerkala iz Novotroickih kurganov // Pamjatniki Evrazii skifo-sarmatskoj jepohi / V.A. Mogil'nikov (red.). M., 19–31.
  21. Moshkova M.G. 1962: Novo-Kumakskij kurgannyj mogil'nik bliz g. Orska // MIA. 115, 206–242.
  22. Moshkova M.G. 1963: Pamjatniki prohorovskoj kul'tury (SAI, D1-10). M.
  23. Moshkova M.G., Ryndina N.V. 1975: Sarmatskie zerkala Povolzh'ja i Priural'ja (himiko-tehnologicheskoe issledovanie) // Ocherki tehnologii drevnejshih proizvodstv / B.A. Kolchin (red.). M., 117–134.
  24. Muradova Ye.A. 1991: Poselenija arhaicheskogo Dahistana. Ashhabad.
  25. Myshkin V.N. 2010: Kolchannye krjuchki kochevnikov Samaro-Ural'skogo regiona v I tys. do n.je. // Arheologija i paleoantropologija evrazijskih stepej i sopredel'nyh territorij (MIAR, 13) / M.M. Gerasimova, V.Ju. Malashev, M.G. Moshkova (red.). M., 262–279.
  26. Prishhepenko L.V., Shaposhnikova O.S. 1970: Novye materialy dlja izuchenija keramiki arhaicheskogo Dahistana // Karakumskie Drevnosti. III / V.M. Masson (red.). Ashhabad, 184–195.
  27. Ravich I.G. 2004: K voprosu o proishozhdenii i primenenii zerkal sarmatskogo vremeni s valikom po kraju diska // Issledovanie i konservacija pamjatnikov kul'tury. Pamjati L.A. Lelekova / K.I. Maslov (red.). M., 67–76.
  28. Ravich I.G. 2006: Nekotorye tipy vysokoolovjannyh gorjachekovanyh zerkal sarmatskogo vremeni i ih tehnologicheskie osobennosti // KSIA. 220, 42–51.
  29. Ravich I.G. v pechati: Sostav i tehnologija izgotovlenija redkih form zerkal iz pogrebenij rannih kochevnikov Juzhnogo Priural'ja // Vlijanija ahemenidskoj kul'tury v Juzhnom Priural'e (V–III vv. do n.je.) / M.Ju. Trejster, L.T. Jablonskij (red.).
  30. Ravich I.G., Jablonskij L.T. 2008: Himiko-tehnologicheskoe izuchenie sarmatskih zerkal, najdennyh v kurgannyh mogil'nikah Orenburgskoj oblasti // Rannie kochevniki Volgo-Ural'skogo regiona / L.T. Jablonskij (red.). Orenburg, 97–105.
  31. Rudenko S.I. 1953: Kul'tura naselenija gornogo Altaja v skifskoe vremja. M.–L.
  32. Saveljev N.S. 2000: Kamennye kurgany vostochnyh predgorij Juzhnogo Urala i nekotorye voprosy formirovanija prohorovskoj kul'tury // UAV. 2, 17–48.
  33. Sirotin S.V. 2008: Issledovanija na kurgannom mogil'nike Perevolochan v Zaural'skoj Bashkirii v 2007 g. (predvaritel'noe soobshhenie) // Rannie kochevniki Volgo-Ural'skogo regiona / L.T. Jablonskij (red.). Orenburg, 136–138.
  34. Smirnov K.F. 1964: Savromaty (rannjaja istorija i kul'tura sarmatov). M.
  35. Smirnov K.F. 1968: Bronzovoe zerkalo iz Mechetsaja // Istorija, arheologija i jetnografija Srednej Azii. K 60-letiju so dnja rozhdenija chlena-korrespondenta AN SSSR, doktora istoricheskih nauk, professora S.P. Tolstova / A.V. Vinogradov, M.G. Vorob'eva, T.A. Zhdanko, M.A. Itina, L.M. Levina, Ju.A. Rapoport (red.). M., 116–121.
  36. Smirnov K.F. 1975: Sarmaty na Ileke. M.
  37. Smirnov K.F. 1977: Orskie kurgany rannih kochevnikov // Issledovanija po arheologii Juzhnogo Urala / R.G. Kuzeev (red.). Ufa, 3–51.
  38. Smirnov K.F. 1989: Savromatskaja i rannesarmatskaja kul'tura // Arheologija SSSR. Stepi evropejskoj chasti SSSR v skifo-sarmatskoe vremja / A.I. Meljukova (red.). M., 165–177.
  39. Smirnov K.F., Petrenko V.G. 1963: Savromaty Povolzh'ja i Juzhnogo Priural'ja (SAI, D1-9). M.
  40. Tairov A.D. 2005: Kochevniki Aralo-Kaspija i Horezm v V–IV vv. do n.je. // Vestnik Cheljabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Serija 10. Vostokovedenie. Evrazijstvo. Geopolitika. 1 (5), 53–63.
  41. Tairov A.D. 2006: Saki Priaral'ja v stepjah Juzhnogo Zaural'ja (po materialam mogil'nika Marovyj shljah) // Juzhnyj Ural i sopredel'nye territorii v skifo-sarmatskoe vremja. K 70-letiju Anatolija Haritonovicha Pshenichnjuka / G.T. Obydennova, N.S. Savel'ev (red.). Ufa, 76–91.
  42. Tairov A.D., Botalov S.G., Pleshanov M.L. 2008: Issledovanija kurgannogo mogil'nika Kichigino v 2007 godu (predvaritel'nye rezul'taty) // Rannie kochevniki Volgo-Ural'skogo regiona / L.T. Jablonskij (red.). Orenburg, 139–145.
  43. Trejster M.Yu. 2007: Torevtika i juvelirnoe delo Severnogo Prichernomor'ja 2 v. do n.je. – 2 v. n.je. (jellinisticheskaja tradicija) // Mordvinceva V.I., Trejster M.Ju. Proizvedenija torevtiki i juvelirnogo iskusstva v Severnom Prichernomor'e 2 v. do n.je. – 2 v. n.je. 1. Simferopol'–Bonn, 15–194.
  44. Trejster M.Yu. v pechati: Ahemenidskie importy v Juzhnom Priural'e. Hronologija. Dinamika. Sostav. Interpretacija // Vlijanija ahemenidskoj kul'tury v Juzhnom Priural'e (V–III vv. do n.je.) / M.Ju. Trejster, L.T. Jablonskij (red.).
  45. Troickaja T.N., Novikov A.V. 2007: Skifo-sibirskij mir. Novosibirsk.
  46. Umanskij A.P. 1992: Rogozihinskie kurgany po raskopkam Barnaul'skogo pedinstituta v 1985 godu // Voprosy arheologii Altaja i Zapadnoj Sibiri jepohi metalla / A.P. Umanskij (red.). Barnaul, 51–59, 186–194.
  47. Umanskij A.P. 1999: K voprosu o semantike zerkala iz Rogozihi // Itogi izuchenija skifskoj jepohi Altaja i sopredel'nyh territorij / Ju.F. Kirjushin, A.A. Tishkin (red.). Barnaul, 206–211.
  48. Umanskij A.P., Shulga P.I. 1999: Dva pogrebenija s vostochnymi zerkalami iz Altajskogo kraja // Voprosy arheologii i istorii Juzhnoj Sibiri. Sbornik statej k 75-letiju so dnja rozhdenija d.i.n., professora A.P. Umanskogo / Ju.F. Kirjushin (red.). Barnaul, 43–81.
  49. Umanskij A.P., Shamshin A.B., Shulga P.I. 2005: Mogil'nik skifskogo vremeni Rogoziha-1 na levoberezh'e Obi. Barnaul.
  50. Fedorov V.K. 2001: O funkcional'nom naznachenii tak nazyvaemyh «savromatskih zhertvennikov» Juzhnogo Priural'ja (II) // UAV. 3, 21–49.
  51. Fedorov V.K., Vasiljev V.N. 1998: Jakovlevskie kurgany rannego zheleznogo veka v Bashkirskom Zaural'e // UAV. 1, 62–96.
  52. Shulga P.I. 1997: «Indijskie» zerkala i zhenshhiny-zhricy na Altae // Social'no-jekonomicheskie struktury drevnih obshhestv Zapadnoj Sibiri / Ju.F. Kirjushin (red.). Barnaul, 144–148.
  53. Shulga P.I. 1999: Zhrecheskie parnye zahoronenija s zerkalami-pogremushkami (k postanovke problemy) // Drevnosti Altaja: Izvestija laboratorii arheologii. 4 / V.I. Soenov (red.). Gorno-Altajsk, 88–99.
  54. Shulga P.I. 2003: Mogil'nik skifskogo vremeni Lokot'-4a. Barnaul.
  55. Yablonskij L.T., Trunaeva T.N., Devis-Kimboll Dzh., Egorov V.L. 1994: Raskopki kurgannyh mogil'nikov Pokrovka 1 i Pokrovka 2 v 1993 godu // Kurgany levoberezhnogo Ileka. 2 / L.T. Jablonskij (red.). M., 4–57.
  56. Alekseev A.Y., Bokovenko N.A., Boltrik Y., Chugunov K.A., Cook G., Dergachev V.A., Kovalyukh N., Possnert G., van der Plicht J., Scott E.M., Sementsov A., Skripkin V., Vasiliev S., Zaitseva G. 2001: A Chronology of the Scythian Antiquities of Eurasia based on New Archaeological and 14C Data // Radiocarbon. 43. 2B, 1085–1107.
  57. Cat. Trieste 2001: Siberia. Gli uomini dei fiumi ghiacciati / A. Popescu, A. Alekseev, J. Piotrovskij (eds.). Milano.
  58. Dergachev V.A., Vasiliev S.S., Sementsov A.A., Zaitseva G.I., Chugunov K.A., Slusarenko I.J. 2001: Dendrochronology and Radiocarbon Dating Methods in Archaeological Studies of Scythian Sites // Radiocarbon. 43. 2A, 417–424.
  59. Firsov K. 2007: Gräber sauromatischer Eliten // Im Zeichen des Goldenen Greifen. Königsgräber der Skythen / H. Parzinger (Hrsg.). München–Berlin–London–New York, 184–196.
  60. Hajdas I., Bonani G., Seifert M. 2004a. Radiocarbon and Calendar Chronology of Ulandryk 4 and Pazyryk 2 Tombs // Oxford University School of Archaeology Monograph. 62, 201–208.
  61. Hajdas I., Bonani G., Slusarenko I.Y., Seifert M. 2004b: Chronology of Pazyryk 2 and Ulandryk 4 Kurgans Based on High Resolution Radiocarbon Dating and Dendrochronology – A Step Towards More Precise Dating of Scythian Burials // Impact of the Environment on Human Migration in Eurasia / E. Marian Scott, A.Yu. Alekseev, G. Zaitseva (eds.) (NATO Science Series, 42), 107–116.
  62. Mallory J.P., McCormac F.G., Reimer P.J., Marsadolov L.S. 2002: The Date of Pazyryk // Ancient Interactions: East and West in Eurasia / K. Boyle, C. Renfrew, M. Levine (eds.). Cambridge, 199–211.
  63. Marsadolov L.S., Marshak B.I. 1997: Early Indian Mirrors and the Problem of the Pre-Mauryan Figurative Art // Fourteenth International Conference of the European Association of South Asian Archaeologists. Istituto Italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente, Palazzo Brancaccio, Rome / M. Taddei, G. De Marco (eds.), 1053.
  64. Murillo-Barroso M., Pryce T.O., Bellina B., Martinón Torres M. 2010: Khao Sam Kaeo – an Archaeometallurgical Crossroads for Trans-Asiatic Technological Traditions // JASc. 37, 1761–1772.
  65. Pande B.M. 1989: Mirrors // An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. 1. Subjects / A. Ghosh (ed.). New Delhi, 347–348.
  66. Ravich I. 1991: Study of Composition of Scythian and Sarmatian Mirrors and Technologies of their Manufactures // BMetalsMus. 16, 20–31.
  67. Ravich I. 1996: The Origins and the Composition Peculiarities of the Hot-Forged Bronze Mirrors with the Thickened Edge // BMetalsMus. 26, 21–26.
  68. Ray H.P. 2003: The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia. Cambridge.
  69. Schmidt E.F. 1957: Persepolis II. Contents of the Treasure and Other Discoveries (OIP, LXIX). Chicago.
  70. Seifert M. 2010: Zur absoluten Datierung der Hügelgräber der Pazyryk–Kultur // Amazonen. Geheimnisvolle Kriegerin. Historisches Museum der Pfalz Speyer. München, 138–139.
  71. Srinivasan S. 1998: The Use of Tin and Bronze in Prehistoric South Indian Metallurgy // Journal of Metals. 50 (7), 44–47, 49.
  72. Srinivasan S., Glover I. 2007: Skilled Mirror Craft of Intermetallic Delta High-Tin Bronze (Cu31Sn8, 32.6% Tin) from Aranmula, Kerala // Current Science. 93. 1, 35–40.
  73. Stronach D. 1978: Pasargadae: A Report on the Excavations Conducted by the British Institute of Persian Studies from 1961 to 1963. Oxford.
  74. Vasiliev S.S., Bokovenko N.A., Chugunov K.A., Dergachev V.A., Sementsov A.A., Sljusarenko Ju., Zaitseva G.I. 2001: Tree-Rings, Wiggle Matching and Statistics in the Chronological Studies of Scythian Age Sites in Asia // Geochronometria. 20, 61–68.
  75. Vassilkov Y.V. 2010: Pre-Mauryan «Rattle-Mirrors» with Artistic Designs from Scythian Burial Mounds of the Altai Regionin the Light of Sanskrit Sources // Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. 17. 3. http://www.ejvs.laurasianacademy.com/
  76. Wu X. 2005: Central Asia in the Context of the Achaemenid Persian Empire (6th to 4th Centuries B.C.). Dissertation. University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia.